Among the most popular variations of the social constructionist theories is the gender role theory, considered by Alsop, Fitzsimons and Lennon as an early form of social constructionism. Social constructionismbriefly, is the concept that there are many things that people "know" or take to be "reality" that are at least partially, if not completely, socially situated. Examples include money, tenurecitizenshipdecorations for bravery, and the presidency of the United States. Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge.
Additionally, even when women attain leadership roles, even top positions in libraries, there are still hurdles in the shape of gendered expectations.
This article examines the history of gender representation in the field, discusses some recent trends, and then makes some recommendations for creating an environment in which women can succeed and how, more specifically, the profession could become more supportive of women in leadership roles.
For some, financial considerations are uppermost. Both men and women and people who do not fall at either end of that false binary can and do make good leaders, but stereotypes and gendered expectations present an unexpected barrier for many of us.
Women are often perceived as nice, kind, and nurturing, while men are usually perceived as forceful, knowledgeable, and decisive. If you do not fall neatly into one of these stereotypical modes, or even if you do, gender expectations can be at the root of a lot of workplace difficulties.
In our case, both authors made the decision to seek a job in administration in part based upon the disproportionate gender representation among library directors, university librarians, and other leadership positions in the field.
And yes, we both ran face-first into gendered expectations. Anyone reading this article is probably aware of the disparity in the numbers of men and women in librarianship.
Librarianship then became a predominantly female profession that was overwhelmingly led by men. This trend changed in the latter part of the last century and into the current one: Meaning, even though there are more women leaders now, we are still not doing it right.
Or, more to the point, we are not doing it the way people want us to do it. We do not act like men. This is not, then, parity. In this essay, we will consider some of the gendered expectations of leadership and how all of this bears on academic library leadership.
We will also tell you how it makes us feel. We hope that it makes you angry like it did us. We hope that it makes you want to help us change the system. We are speaking both from our experiences and from evidence found in the literature, and we know that the lived daily experiences of gender-non-conforming and non-binary individuals can play out differently.
We also want to affirm that race, age, and other cultural perspectives will influence not only your own experiences but the reactions of those around you. Much of our research, which affirmed our suspicions, falls within the library literature, but there is a large body of work in business and psychology about the role of gender and gendered expectations in leadership.
We hope that some of what we have learned personally and through considering the literature of the field is transferrable to other library types and even to other female dominated professions, but we would never presume to suggest that our solutions are a one-size-fits-all response to these expectations.
Gendered Leadership in Our Lives The authors proposed this article out of a joint frustration with our own experiences as we transitioned from middle management as a department head and an information literacy coordinator respectively.
It helped ameliorate the frustration to know others have had similar or even identical experiences. Many female leaders we know were told to be nicer to their subordinates. Being told to contain our anger when we see male colleagues yell at even the highest administrators with no negative repercussion is another source of frustration.
For us, writing this article is a way to take our frustrations and experiences and turn them into something useful. When we spoke about our own experiences to a small group of other female library administrators, we were overwhelmed but not really surprised by their sharing of similar experiences.
We asked permission to share some of their words in this essay, and promised anonymity in return. I really admired many of them, and this still makes me sad and angry. What we found in looking through literature, both in and outside of our field, was at times enraging and at times soothing in that it made us feel better that we were not imagining bias.
Gendered expectations of women leaders is a thing people in library science and beyond have been writing about for some time. A piece on the Harvard Business Review blog network is especially worth noting here. We all know competent, supportive, and deeply qualified male library leaders, but it does bear repeating: This idea that fewer obstacles are placed in the paths of men who aspire to leadership is born out in other research.
One particular criticism struck home: Crossing the lines of expected roles has multiple possible repercussions.
Even more discouraging was how, in this study, male librarians and nurses felt freer to make mistakes and not be called to task for it, especially with regards to mistakes outside of the performance of duties, such as being repeatedly late to work.
We Keep Reading and Writing about the Dichotomy As previously mentioned, the struggle of women to live up to or to fight gendered expectations of leadership positions is well-documented and a topic of strong dichotomies.
Some say women are doing quite well as leaders and some articles even suggest women make the best leaders. Fairly recently, the mainstream media has been touting that companies can be most successful if they hire women to lead, while surveys of personnel still reveal that people prefer to work for men Eagly, When women are leaders, they are expected to act in a very specific, gendered way.Essay on Gender Perception Gender Perception Sex is the biological difference between a man and a woman and the variants in between.
Gender is the internal perception of being a male or female, and can be displayed to others through the expression of masculinity and femininity.
The January issue of National Geographic is dedicated to exploring what it calls the “Gender Revolution”—a post-Sexual Revolution movement that seeks to deconstruct traditional understandings about human embodiment, male-female sexual dimorphism, and gender. In an article titled “Rethinking Gender,” Robin Marantz Henig cites evolving gender .
Gender Perception Sex is the biological difference between a man and a woman and the variants in between. Gender is the internal perception of being a male or female, and can be displayed to others through the expression of masculinity and femininity. I used to be a fundamentalist, and it was this fish that first convinced me there could be mistakes in the Bible.
Not because the whale isn’t really a fish, but because the Bible, going back to the earliest documents we have, is inconsistent about its gender. It uses the word three times: The fish (“dag,” masculine) swallowed Jonah, Jonah was inside the . Family, Religion, and Gender Perception Essay.
How are gender roles learned? - Family, Religion, and Gender Perception Essay introduction??
Gender itself refers to the socially constructed attributions that a given society considers appropriate for men and women and the outward expressions of what society considers “masculine” or “feminine. The SAT (/ ˌ ɛ s ˌ eɪ ˈ t iː / ess-ay-TEE) is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United nationwidesecretarial.comuced in , its name and scoring have changed several times; originally called the Scholastic Aptitude Test, it was later called the Scholastic Assessment Test, then the SAT I: Reasoning Test, then the SAT Reasoning Test, and now, simply the SAT.