Synopsis[ edit ] This essay is widely held to be one of the greatest examples of sustained irony in the history of the English language. Much of its shock value derives from the fact that the first portion of the essay describes the plight of starving beggars in Ireland, so that the reader is unprepared for the surprise of Swift's solution when he states:
What time should the school day begin? School start times vary considerably, both across the nation and within individual communities, with some schools beginning earlier than 7: Districts often stagger the start times of different schools in order to reduce transportation costs by using fewer buses.
But if beginning the school day early in the morning has a negative impact on academic performance, staggering start times may not be worth the cost savings.
Proponents of later start times, who have received considerable media attention in recent years, argue that many students who have to wake up early for school do not get enough sleep and that beginning the school day at a later time would boost their achievement.
A number of school districts have responded by delaying the start of their school day, and a congressional resolution introduced by Rep.
Zoe Lofgren D-CA recommended that secondary schools nationwide start at 9: Despite this attention, there is little rigorous evidence directly linking school start times and academic performance. In this study, I use data from Wake County, North Carolina, to examine how start times affect the performance of middle school students on standardized tests.
I find that delaying school start times by one hour, from roughly 7: The effect is largest for students with below-average test scores, suggesting that later start times would narrow gaps in student achievement. The primary rationale given for start times affecting academic performance is biological.
Numerous studies, including those published by Elizabeth Baroni and her colleagues in and by Fred Danner and Barbara Phillips inhave found that earlier start times may result in fewer hours of sleep, as students may not fully compensate for earlier rising times with earlier bedtimes.
Activities such as sports and work, along with family and social schedules, may make it difficult for students to adjust the time they go to bed. In addition, the onset of puberty brings two factors that can make this adjustment particularly difficult for adolescents: Hormonal changes, in particular, the secretion of melatonin, shift the natural circadian rhythm of adolescents, making it increasingly difficult for them to fall asleep early in the evening.
Lack of sleep, in turn, can interfere with learning. A survey of research studies found substantial evidence that less sleep is associated with a decrease in cognitive performance, both in laboratory settings and through self-reported sleep habits.
Researchers have likewise reported a negative correlation between self-reported hours of sleep and school grades among both middle- and high-school students.
I find evidence consistent with this explanation: However, I also find evidence of other potential mechanisms; later start times are associated with reduced television viewing, increased time spent on homework, and fewer absences.
Regardless of the precise mechanism at work, my results from Wake County suggest that later start times have the potential to be a more cost-effective method of increasing student achievement than other common educational interventions such as reducing class size.
It encompasses all public schools in Wake County, a mostly urban and suburban county that includes the cities of Raleigh and Wake Forest. Start times for schools in the district are proposed by the transportation department which also determines bus schedules and approved by the school board.
Wake County is uniquely suited for this study because there are considerable differences in start times both across schools and for the same schools at different points in time.
While there are some minor differences in the exact start times, most Tier I schools begin at 7: Just over half of middle schools begin at 7: The school day at all schools is the same length.
But as the student population has grown, the school district has changed the start times for many individual schools in order to maintain a balanced bus schedule, generating differences in start times for the same school in different years.
The only nationally representative dataset that records school start times indicates that, as ofthe median middle-school student in the U.
More than one-quarter of students begin school at 8:Definition, Usage and a list of Claim Examples in common speech and literature. Claim is a statement essentially arguable but used as a primary point to support or prove an argument.
Claim of Policy This Essay Claim of Policy and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on nationwidesecretarial.com Autor: review • November 23, • Essay • Words (4 Pages) • 1, Views5/5(1).
Support your claim with references to case studies written by members of the class and available on the class web page. Directions appear below. Directions for writing a case study: Follow these steps in writing your claim essay: Scan quickly through all of the different case studies published in .
May 08, · Feature. The Aspiring Novelist Who Became Obama’s Foreign-Policy Guru. How Ben Rhodes rewrote the rules of diplomacy for the digital age.
What time should the school day begin? School start times vary considerably, both across the nation and within individual communities, with some schools beginning earlier than a.m.
and others after a.m. Districts often stagger the start times of different schools in order to reduce transportation costs by using fewer buses.
How to Start a Paragraph. In this Article: Article Summary Paragraph Template and Sample Paragraphs Starting an Argumentative Paragraph Starting an Introductory Paragraph Starting a Conclusion Paragraph Starting a Paragraph of a Story Using Transitions Between Paragraphs Overcoming Writer's Block Community Q&A A paragraph is a small unit of writing that is made up of several (usually