Professionalism, Teacher Efficacy, and Standards-Based Education Consider how it would feel to be a participant in either of the following two scenarios. A group of classroom teachers has gathered for the first faculty meeting of the year. The superintendent of schools, with a pained look on his face, convenes the meeting by saying: I'm sure you are all aware of the governor's new educational reform plan.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Due to changes in the delivery of health care and in society, medicine became aware of serious threats to its professionalism. Beginning in the mids it was agreed that if professionalism was to survive, an important step would be to teach it explicitly to students, residents, and practicing physicians.
This has become a requirement for medical schools and training programs in many countries. There are several challenges in teaching professionalism. The first challenge is to agree on the definition to be used in imparting knowledge of the subjects to students and faculty.
The second is to develop means of encouraging students to consistently demonstrate the behaviors characteristic of a professional - essentially to develop a professional identity. Teaching of professionalism must be both explicit and implicit.
Of even more importance, there must be an emphasis on experiential learning and reflection on personal experience. The general principles, which can be helpful to an institution or program of teaching professionalism, are presented, along with the experience of McGill University, an institution which has established a comprehensive program on the teaching of professionalism.
The past half century has seen major changes in the practice of medicine. The explosion of science and technology, as well as the development Teacher professionalism multiple specialties and sub-specialties, has made Teacher professionalism profession both more diverse and disease oriented Starr, The increased complexity of care and its cost have brought third party payers, either governments or the corporate sector, into the business of health.
Society has also changed. Medicine in particular was seen as self serving rather than promoting the public good and was felt to self-regulate poorly with weak standards applied irregularly. There was a feeling that the professions did not deserve the trust or their privileged position in society.
As a result medicine began to examine the threats to its professionalism and, starting in the mids, realized that if professionalism was to survive, action would be required. In many western countries this has become a requirement for accreditation of medical schools and training programs.
The Challenges There are several challenges inherent in teaching professionalism Cruess et al.
The first is to obtain agreement on a definition. The next is how best to impart knowledge of professionalism to students and faculty. Of great importance is how to encourage those behaviors characteristic of a professional developing a professional identity.
Traditionally professionalism was taught by role-models Wright et al. This is still an essential method but it is no longer sufficient. Both faculty, many of whom are role-models, and students should understand the nature of contemporary professionalism.
In the literature there are two approaches to teaching professionalism; to teach it explicitly as a series of traits Swick, or as a moral endeavor, stressing reflection and experiential learning Coulehan, ; Huddle, Neither alone is sufficient.
Teaching it by providing a definition and listing a series of traits gives students only a theoretical knowledge of the subject. Relying solely on role modeling and experiential learning is selective, often disorganized, and actually represents what was done in the past.
Both approaches must be combined in order that students both understand the nature of professionalism and internalize its values Ludmerer, The first step to be taken in teaching professionalism is to teach its cognitive base explicitly.
A medical institution should therefore select and agree on the definition of a profession and its attributes. There is some confusion in the literature on the exact nature of the words profession and professionalism, with some believing that it is difficult to define professionalism as it is too complex and context driven.
There are however several definitions available, and all contain similar content Stern, ; Swick, ; Steinert et al. There are also attributes, drawn from the literature, which outline what is expected of a medical professional and these can form the basis of identifying the behaviors which reflect these attributes Cruess et al.
Profession and Professionalism The literature contains many definitions which can serve as the basis of the teaching of professionalism.
While the arrangement of the words may vary, the content of these definitions is remarkably similar. We developed and published the following definition of profession which has served us well in our teaching programs Cruess et al. An occupation whose core element is work based upon the mastery of a complex body of knowledge and skills.
It is a vocation in which knowledge of some department of science or learning or the practice of an art founded upon it is used in the service of others.Understanding Teachers’ Perspectives on Professionalism Volume XXVII • Number 1 & 2 • Fall & Spring 91 rep licas of tho se who have gone before.”.
Professionalism, Teacher Efficacy, and Standards-Based Education Consider how it would feel to be a participant in either of the following two scenarios.
Scenario 1: A group of classroom teachers has gathered for the first faculty meeting of the year. Professionalism, Teacher Efficacy, and Standards-Based Education Consider how it would feel to be a participant in either of the following two scenarios.
Scenario 1: A group of classroom teachers has gathered for the first faculty meeting of the year. Teachers have broad professional standards based on their interactions with students, parents, community members, colleagues, staff and administrators.
The first step in becoming a professional is to earn a degree in education and meet state licensing standards. Mercedes S. Tichenor & John M. Tichenor 90 The Professional Educator basic qualities of professional teachers and what aspects of professionalism ideal teachers exhibit.
professionalism will work productively with others and strive for a high standard and constant improvement. Professionalism may look slightly different in various settings, but the core elements are always the same – and give young employees an edge as they begin their careers.