Projects such as the Black Law Wind Farm have received wide recognition for its contribution to environmental objectives, including praise from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birdswho describe the scheme as both improving the landscape of a derelict opencast mining site and also benefiting a range of wildlife in the area, with an extensive habitat management projects covering over 14 square kilometres.
Pollutant and Greenhouse gas An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. The substance can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. A pollutant can be of natural origin or man-made.
Pollutants are classified as primary or secondary. Primary pollutants are usually produced by processes such as ash from a volcanic eruption. Other examples include carbon monoxide gas from motor vehicle exhausts or sulphur dioxide released from the factories.
Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. Ground level ozone is a prominent example of secondary pollutants. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: Before flue-gas desulphurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulphur dioxide.
Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: Thermal oxidisers are air pollution abatement options for hazardous air pollutants HAPsvolatile organic compounds VOCsand odorous emissions.
Substances emitted into the atmosphere by human activity include: Carbon dioxide CO2 — Because of its role as a greenhouse gas it has been described as "the leading pollutant"  and "the worst climate pollution".
Clean Air Act is deemed to regulate CO2 emissions. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Coal and petroleum often contain sulphur compounds, and their combustion generates sulphur dioxide.
Nitrogen oxides NOx — Nitrogen oxides, particularly nitrogen dioxideare expelled from high temperature combustion, and are also produced during thunderstorms by electric discharge.
They can be seen as a brown haze dome above or a plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula NO2. It is one of several nitrogen oxides. One of the most prominent air pollutants, this reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor.
Carbon monoxide CO — CO is a colorless, odorless, toxic yet non-irritating gas.
It is a product of combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust contributes to the majority of carbon monoxide let into our atmosphere. It creates a smog type formation in the air that has been linked to many lung diseases and disruptions to the natural environment and animals.
Inmore than half of the carbon monoxide emitted into our atmosphere was from vehicle traffic and burning one gallon of gas will often emit over 20 pounds of carbon monoxide into the air. Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming.
Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant greenhouse gases because of their role in creating ozone and prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere.
This effect varies depending on local air quality. The aromatic NMVOCs benzene, toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia with prolonged exposure. Particulatesalternatively referred to as particulate matter PMatmospheric particulate matter, or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas.
In contrast, aerosol refers to combined particles and gas. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray.
Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols.
Averaged worldwide, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—currently account for approximately 10 percent of our atmosphere.
Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease,  altered lung function and lung cancer.
Particulates are related to respiratory infections and can be particularly harmful to those already suffering from conditions like asthma. Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs — harmful to the ozone layer ; emitted from products are currently banned from use.
These are gases which are released from air conditioners, refrigerators, aerosol sprays, etc. On release into the air, CFCs rise to the stratosphere. Here they come in contact with other gases and damage the ozone layer.An important way to decrease dependence on transmission lines and centralized electricity generation is to decentralize energy production—using solar, wind, and micro-hydro to generate electricity as close as possible to the point of use.
Ron, gonna need some clarification. 1) You seem to say months 2, 3 whatever correlate to first 24 hour IP. That seems intuitive. If the initial number is higher, and the decline rate is somewhat the same, then out months should also be higher.
The contribution of different biofuels to reducing fossil-fuel consumption varies widely when the fossil energy used as an input in their production is also taken into account.
The fossil energy balance of a biofuel depends on factors such as feedstock characteristics, production location, agricultural practices and the source of energy used for the .
These are mostly related to the burning of multiple types of fuel. Stationary sources include smoke stacks of fossil fuel power stations (see for example environmental impact of the coal industry), manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating nationwidesecretarial.com developing and .
7. In , global energy consumption stood at around 10TW./2 (See Box ) if per capita use remained at the same levels as today, by a global population of billion/3 would need about 14TW (over 4TW in developing and over 9TW in industrial countries) - an increase of 40 per cent over But if energy consumption per head .
Introduction While the world economy is developing fast nowadays, the demand of energy is increasing. The Effects of the Reduction of Fossil Fuels and Environmental Problems on the Economy and the Need for Searching for a New Form of Energy PAGES 6. WORDS 1, View Full Essay.